There are five basic steps to start guiding.
Details of these operations will be described in the sections below.
- Press the USB-icon button and connect to your guide camera
- Pick an exposure duration from the drop-down list.
the loop button and look at the available stars, adjusting focus if
necessary. Move the mount or adjust the exposure duration as needed to
find a suitable guide star.
- Click on a non-saturated star that's not very near an edge
for use as the guide star.
- Press the PHD2
order to begin guiding, PHD2
must first connect to your hardware: the
guide camera, the mount, and, optionally, an 'aux' mount, an adaptive optics
(AO) device, or a rotator. When you click on the USB
icon, you'll see a dialog that looks like this:
Camera drop-down list shows all the camera types currently supported by
In all cases, the OS-level drivers for the camera must be
installed correctly in order for PHD2 to connect to the device.
If the camera uses an ASCOM interface, you'll also need to
install the corresponding ASCOM driver for the camera. If you
don't see your ASCOM-compatible camera shown in the drop-down list, you
probably don't have the ASCOM driver installed. Neither the ASCOM nor
OS-level drivers are included with PHD2, so they must be located,
downloaded, and installed separately. For non-ASCOM cameras, the
PHD2 distribution does include the additional application libraries
needed by PHD2 to use the camera..
is not practical to provide an exhaustive list of cameras that are
supported by PHD2. In many cases, camera vendors extend their
product lines by updating their lower-level drivers without having to
change the application libraries used by PHD2. In those cases, we
aren't aware of the changes unless a user reports problems. The
list shown below should be interpeted as follows:
1. If the
camera vendor is completely absent, it is unlikely that the camera is
supported, or it may only be supported using a web-cam interface
If the camera model is shown in the list, it is supported unless
there are unresolved problems with the vendor's drivers
3. If the specific camera model is absent but earlier models are shown, it is likely the camera is supported
4. If the camera uses an ASCOM interface, it is supported
the PHD2 download is free, the simplest course of action is to
install it and see if your camera is shown in the PHD2 drop-down list.
Alternatively, you can check for camera support info in the Wiki on the PHD2 Google forum: https://github.com/OpenPHDGuiding/phd2/wiki/CameraSupport
Finally, you can always post a message on the open-phd-guiding forum asking if anyone has experience with the camera.
Baseline list of supported cameras:
- ASCOM v5/6 compliant cameras
- Atik 16 series, color or monochrome
- Atik Gen 3 color or monochrome
- CCD-Labs Q-Guider
- Fishcamp Starfish
- iNova PLC-M
- MagZero MZ-5
- Meade DSI series: I-III, color and monochrome
- Orion StarShoot DSCI
- Orion Starshoot Autoguider
- Orion Starshoot Planetary Imager and Autoguider
- QHY 5-II
- QHY 5L-II
- SBIG rotator
- Starlight Xpress SXF / SXVF / Lodestar
- Webcams (LXUSB, parallel, serial, OpenCV, WDM)
- ZWO ASI
- Fishcamp Starfish
- Meade DSI series: I-III, color and monochrome
- Orion Starshoot Autoguider
- Starlight XPress SXV
- The Imaging Source (DCAM Firewire)
- ZWO ASI
Support for SBIG Dual-chip CamerasMany
cameras from the Santa Barbara Instrument Group (SBIG) have
two sensors - a primary one for imaging and a second, smaller one
for guiding. While the two sensors are physically separate, they
share electronics inside the camera and more importantly, share a
single USB data link to the computer. This means that
downloading of data from the two sensors must be coordinated - you
can't retrieve a guider image while an image from the main sensor is
being downloaded. Beyond that, Windows will only allow one
application at a time to connect to the camera over the single USB
link. These are physical and architectural restrictions that
can't be circumvented by PHD2. However, it is possible for the
camera-controlling (image capture) application to implement an
interface for PHD2 to get data from the guide chip - essentially,
a "side door" mechanism that won't violate any of the above rules.
With this arrangement, the image capture application is acting as
a traffic cop to coordinate access to the two camera sensors. At
the time of this writing (October 2015), the only imaging
application that does this is Sequence Generator Pro (SGP). If you
use SGP as your main imaging application, you can also use their "SGP
API Guider" module, which allows PHD2 to access the guide chip on the
ASCOM Camera PropertiesIf
you choose an ASCOM camera, you'll also be able to access the ASCOM
setup dialog for that camera by clicking on the properties button
immediately to the left of the 'Connect' button:
Depending on the camera, this may provide access to properties that are not controlled by PHD2.
Multiple Cameras of the Same TypeIf
your computer is connected to multiple cameras from the same
manufacturer, you'll usually need to specify which camera should be
used by PHD2. You can do that by clicking on the 'fork' button to
the right of the camera drop-down list:
this button will show a list of the available cameras and you can
choose the one you want. PHD2 will remember the choice and save
it as part of your equipment profile, so you should only need to do
The Mount drop-down list displays options for connecting to
your mount. There are generally two ways to do this:
ASCOM interface relies on third-party drivers to communicate with the
mount. These drivers are available from the ASCOM web site (ASCOM Standards)
from the mount manufacturer - they are not distributed with PHD2. So
the drop-down list will be populated by only those ASCOM drivers you
already have installed on your system. The ASCOM driver must
support the 'PulseGuide' interface, which has been a requirement for
ASCOM compliance for many years and is widely supported.
With this type of mount control, guide commands are sent from PHD2 to
the mount over the serial interface. The high-level PHD2 guide
commands (e.g. "Move west 500 mSec") are translated by the mount
firmware into the appropriate motor control signals to execute the
command. With the ASCOM interface, PHD2 can also
pointing position of the mount, especially the declination and side-of-pier, which can
be used as factors in guider calibration.
an ASCOM-compatible telescope driver that sends guide commands to the
mount over a serial cable (or more commonly, a USB/Serial
the ST-4 compatible guide port interface on the mount with a
specialized cable and an intermdiate device like a camera or a
interfaces use a specialized, hardware-level control port available on
most mounts. To use this type of interface, there must be
device in the link between PHD2
and the mount:
this style of interface, PHD2
guide commands like "Move west 500
mSec" are translated by the intermediate device (camera, Shoestring
box, AO) into electrical signals necessary to drive the mount
motor for the correct length of time.
- Any of the guide cameras which have an ST-4 compatible
"on-camera" guider interface. Use the 'on camera' mount choice for these setups.
- Any of the Shoestring GP-xxx devices
- A supported AO device with a guide port interface
Aux Mount SelectionIf
you have selected an ST-4 style of guiding in the 'mount'
section, that interface cannot be used to query the pointing
position of the telescope. As a consequence, guider
calibration won't be automatically adjusted for declination, nor will
it be automatically flipped when the side-of-pier changes. You
can restore these features by specifying an "aux" mount connection that
will be used only to get the telescope pointing information. An
example is shown below:
Windows users, the "aux" mount can use any of the ASCOM-compatible
mount drivers, while Linux users can take advantage of INDI drivers.
The "aux" mount choice will be used only if the primary mount
interface cannot return pointing information - it will otherwise be
ignored. Note: some mounts (e.g. Celestron and iOptron) have a
separate hardware port also labeled 'Aux' - DO NOT USE THIS for
guiding - it is completely unrelated to the 'Aux' connection in PHD2.
last entry in the list of 'Aux mount' connections is labeled "Ask for
coordinates." This can provide a rudimentary aux-mount facility
if you can't use an ASCOM or INDI connection to your mount. If
you need to pursue this option, you can read about the details in
the Tools section.
Benefits of Using ASCOM (or INDI) connectionsIf
you're running on a Windows platform, you'll probably be better off
using an ASCOM connection for guiding your mount. On other
operating systems, your best choice is likely to be an INDI connection
if one is available. This advice may be contrary to some
old-school experience or folklore on the Web and probably isn't what
you'll hear from the manufacturer of the guide camera. But the
benefits of doing so with PHD2 are substantial, and you should use this
alternative unless you have specific and credible information
against it. Here are some of the primary benefits:
you have an older mount built before 2005 or thereabouts, it may not
have firmware-level support for ASCOM pulse guiding. In those
cases, you may get better guiding results using the ST-4 guiding
interface. If you're in doubt, check the documentation for your
mount or ask on one of the forums about pulse-guide support. Even
then, you can use ASCOM for the PHD2 "aux-mount" connection and get
many of the benefits listed above. A common misconception,
frequently seen on Web forums, is that ST-4 guiding is hardware-based
and thus more accurate or responsive. For any of the modern
mounts you're likely to encounter, this is no longer true - there will
always be software running at each end of the cable, just like ASCOM
guiding. The bottom line is this: if you have an ASCOM or Indi
driver available for your mount, you should probably use it.
- A drastic reduction in the number of re-calibrations you'll need to perform. Changing targets will not
require another calibration because PHD2 can know where the scope
is pointing and automatically make adjustments to the guider
calibration. Most users get a good calibration and then re-use
it until they make hardware changes of some kind.
- Automatic adjustment for meridian flips - no need to remember to manually flip the calibration data.
- Automatic adjustment of RA calibration to handle targets in different parts of the sky (declination compensation)
of the ST-4 guide cable as a point of failure - this is a surprisingly
common problem because the cables can be damaged or confused with
similar-looking cables (e.g. telephone cables)
- Elimination of a moving cable that can snag, drag, or bind as the scope is moved around.
ability for PHD2 to sanity-check calibration results and warn of
possible problems before you waste hours of imaging time.
- Better diagnostic and trouble-shooting information, which is particularly helpful if you need to ask for assistance
- Availability of scope-slewing options during drift alignment which can further speed the process of polar alignment
Adaptive Optics and Rotator Selections
now have the option of controlling the Starlight Xpress
adaptive optics unit and/or any of several ASCOM-compatible camera
rotators These can be specified by clicking on the 'More
Equipment..." button in the above dialog:
you don't have these devices, just leave the selections at 'None.'
If these devices are connected, you'll see additional tabs in
the 'Advanced Settings' dialog that provide access to various
device-related properties. PHD2 does not control a rotator, but
it will read the current angle setting from the rotator and adjust
the guiding calibration if needed.
of the PHD2
camera, mount, AO, rotator - include built-in simulators. You can use
these simulators to explore how PHD2
works and to decide how you want
to use the program. There's no reason to waste valuable
time learning to use PHD2!
Virtually all of PHD2's
features, including full
calibration and all the graphical display options, will work properly
when device simulators are used. You will even
see fairly realistic guiding performance to give you some idea of what
to expect in the field. To get started using the simulators,
choose 'Simulator' for the camera type and 'On-camera' for the Mount
That said, the simulators are not
useful for trouble-shooting any problems you encounter with your real
mount. Both the camera and the mount must be real devices in
order to diagnose problems or otherwise get your gear calibrated and
working. In that sense, what you see when using the simulators is
realistic but "fake" behavior. The simulators can be useful in some cases
for reproducing PHD2 application problems, but not for anything having
to do with your actual guiding equipment.
At the top of
the 'Connect Equipment' dialog are some additional controls for
managing equipment profiles. All of the guider settings in PHD2,
default or otherwise, are automatically stored as part of an equipment
profile. If you have only one guiding setup - you use the
camera and guide scope combination each time - you will only need one
profile; and you can just use the default profile. But you
have multiple equipment configurations - for example, an
off-axis-guiding arrangement for a long focal length scope and a
separate guide scope/camera configuration for a shorter focal length
imaging scope. The PHD2
guide settings for those configurations
are likely to be different, so you would want to use separate equipment
profiles The controls at the top of the 'Connect Equipment'
dialog let you choose the profile you want to use and to
create/edit/remove profiles as you see fit. When you select a
profile and connect to its associated equipment, all of the
settings last used with that profile are automatically
Once you've established the profiles you need - perhaps only
default one - you can simply click on the 'Connect All' button and
you're ready to move ahead.
you already have a suitable default equipment profile and you simply
want to connect to the equipment just as before, you can do a
<shift>-click on the main screen 'USB' button and PHD2 will
automatically re-connect to your hardware.
best way to create a new profile is to use the "Wizard"
capability. The wizard takes you through a sequence of windows
that explain the various settings and help you decide how to set
them. It will also calculate baseline algorithm
settings that are likely to work reasonably well for your set-up.
Creating a profile this way is faster and less error-prone
than doing it by hand in the 'Connect Equipment' dialog.
When you run PHD2
for the first time on your system, this
wizard will be automatically launched. Subsequently, you can use
the new-profile wizard by clicking on the 'Manage Profiles' field in
the 'Connect Equipment' dialog, then choosing 'New using
The wizard asks a number of questions that
are important for getting your profile built correctly. The
explanatory text in each pane of the wizard should make clear what is
being asked and what needs to be done. But here are some
additional tips to help you through the process:
1. Camera connection pane: unbinned pixel size.
The 'detect' button next to this field can be used to get the
pixel size directly from the camera., so you should try this option
first. However, some cameras and drivers don't provide this
information, so you'll need to enter it yourself. You should be
able to get the unbinned
pixel size from the camera spec sheet or the manufacturer's web site.
If the pixels aren't square, just specify the size on either
dimension or the average value if you prefer. This won't have any
effect on your actual guidng results, but it will allow PHD2 to show
guiding results in units of arc-seconds, which is the best way to look
2. Camera connection pane: guide scope focal length.
This seems to be a common place for mistakes, so it's worth being
careful and getting it right. The correct value is not the
aperture of the
guide scope, it is the focal length.
So, for example, if you're guiding with a 50mm finder
focal length willl not be 50mm - it will probably be something closer
to 150-175mm. A 60-80mm refractor guide scope will probably have
length in the range of 240-500mm, not 60-80mm. Similarly, if
you're guidng with an OAG on your main imaging scope, the focal length
will be that of the main scope. In some cases, you may be using a
small threaded focal reducer on the guide camera, so that must also be
taken into account. Like the pixel-size entry, the focal length
doesn't demand a great deal of precision, but you should get as close
as you can. Otherwise, the performance numbers may not reflect
your actual results.
3. Mount connection pane: mount guide speed. This is another area that seems to cause confusion. The guide speed is a parameter set in the mount or in the mount driver, it's not something controlled by PHD2. PHD2 never sets the mount guide
speed, it only reads it. It is usually expressed as a multiple of
the sidereal rate and is typically in the range of 0.5x - 1x sidereal.
Despite what you may read elsewhere, it's generally best to use
guide speeds in this range rather than much lower speeds. Higher
guide speeds can help to clear backlash more quickly and may help to
overcome stiction problems. If you have the mount physically
connected and are using an ASCOM (or Indi) interface, you can click on
the 'Detect' button and PHD2 will attempt to read the current guide
speed from the mount. If this fails for some reason, you'll need
to enter the guide speed manually. PHD2 uses this value to
automatically set the calibration step-size and to aid in checking
calibration results; but the guide speed information is not important
for the actual guiding. If you're using different guide speeds on
the RA and Dec axes, enter the larger value. If you really can't
determine what the guide speed settings are in the mount, leave the
setting at the default value of 0.5.
In the last pane of the
wizard dialog, you're given the option to build a dark library for the
profile, You should always do this unless you already have a
compatible dark library that you're going to import from a different
profile. If you are changing cameras and want to keep the dark
libraries and bad-pixel maps associated with the old camera, you should
create a separate profile for the new camera. When a camera
selection is changed in an existing profile, the previously built dark
library and bad-pixel map data will no longer be usable. That
also applies to using the same camera with different binning values.
Setups using different binning factors should be kept in separate
the dark library and bad-pixel maps depend on the binning factor.
Time and Star Selection
guide star can be selected (clicked on) while "looping" is active - in
fact, this is the recommended method. It can also be selected
after looping has been stopped, but this opens the possibility that the
star might have moved since the last exposure. No great
is required in clicking on the star - PHD2 will find the
nearest to the cursor. After you do this, a green box will
appear to frame the star. If you pick a star that is too
bright (saturated), the status bar will show a red 'SAT' label and you
should choose a fainter star if one is available.
You can adjust the gamma slider to the left to see fainter stars. The choice of exposure time will
depend entirely on your equipment, sky conditions, and the available
stars. The exposure time you choose has several
As a starting point, try using exposure durations in the range
of two to four seconds. Rather than choosing the star yourself with a mouse-click, you can let PHD2 Auto-select the
guide star by using the Alt-S keyboard shortcut after stars are
visible in the main display. If you want to de-select a star without
choosing another one, you can do a shift-click anywhere on the image display window. If you are just
starting with this
equipment set-up, you'll probably need to focus the guide camera -
doing so is important for good guiding. You can use the Star Profile tool
to help with that process. The camera exposure control displays
a wide range of pre-set exposure times. Exposure
times smaller than one second are intended for use with adaptive
optics devices or in other special situations - they are generally not
appropriate for use with typical guide camera set-ups. There is
'custom' exposure option at the bottom of the list that lets you
specify a value not already displayed. Again, this is intended
for special applications, for example where an unusually long exposure
affects the signal strength (brightness) of the selected star - a
brighter star will
stand out better from the background and will generally produce
better guiding results so long as it is not saturated.
also determines the frequency with which guide commands are sent to the
mount - guide commands cannot be sent any more frequently
than once for each exposure cycle. Some mounts benefit from
frequent small guiding adjustments while others do not - you may need
to experiment to understand what works best for your situation.
has a strong effect on the sensitivity of the guide algorithms to
seeing conditions. As the exposure time is increased up
through 2-6 seconds, the effects of seeing are smoothed out.
The camera is essentially averaging out the larger,
high-frequency seeing movements, so the guide algorithms have less
difficulty distinguishing "seeing jitter" from actual guide star
displacements that need to be corrected. This is particularly
noticeable if you are guiding with a long focal length setup.
There is also an Auto exposure time selection available. When exposure
is set to Auto, PHD2 will attempt to adjust the exposure to keep the
selected guide star at a constant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value.
This is a specialized measurement used by PHD2 to determine how well
the star can be distinguished from the background - it is similar but
not identical to the signal-to-noise ratio used in photometry.
The Auto setting is primarily intended for AO users who
minimize exposure time without losing the guide star. The settings to
Auto-exposure are on the Camera Tab
of the Advanced Dialog. Non-AO users should probably not use the
"Auto' exposure setting because it complicates interpretation of
the guiding results.
Two things need to be measured by PHD2
as part of guider calibration:
handles these measurements automatically by sending guide pulses to the
mount and watching how far and in which direction the star moves
between guide camera images. This process begins after you
selected a star and then clicked on the PHD2/Guide icon button.
cross-hairs will appear over the original location of your guide star
and PHD2 will start to move the mount in various
directions, tracking how the star moves as a function of what move
commands were sent to the mount. The status bar will display
commands as they are sent to the mount, along with the incremental
movements of the guide star relative to its starting position.
will do this on both axes, first moving east and west, then
north and south. PHD2
wants to move the star up to 25 pixels in
each direction in order to get an accurate calibration. Once
is complete, the crosshairs will turn green and guiding will start
- The angle of the camera relative to the telescope
- The length of the guide pulse needed to move the telescope
by a specific amount
PHD2 moves the guide star in all four directions, only the west and
north movements are actually used to compute the guide rates and camera
angle. The east and south moves are used only to restore the star
roughly to its starting position. Before the north moves are
begun, you will see a sequence of pulses that are intended to
clear backlash. PHD2 takes a fairly
aggressive approach to clearing this backlash, watching for a clear
pattern of movement in a single direction with no reversals. Even
so, these pulses may still not clear all the declination
backlash in your mount, particularly if you are significantly affected
by seeing conditions. In that case, the computed declination
rate may be too
low, a situation that is discussed further in the Tools and Utilities
section. You may also see that the south pulses leave the guide
star well-short of its starting position - this is another visual clue
that you have significant declination backlash in your mount. If
you see evidence of sizable backlash, you can run the Guiding Assistant
tool and measure it directly.
most cases, calibration will complete automatically without any user
involvement. If you get frequent failures during calibration, you should consult the trouble-shooting section.
you're using an ASCOM (or Indi) connection for either the 'mount' or
'aux-mount', a good calibration can be re-used for a long time,
and that is the preferred way to operate. These connection
options allow PHD2 to know where the telescope is pointing, so a
calibration done at one point in the sky will be automatically adjusted
as you slew to different targets. The old method of having to
re-calibrate whenever you slewed the scope or switched the side-of-pier
is a thing of the past so long as PHD2 has pointing information.
With this type of set-up, you would only re-calibrate if
you rotate the position of the guide camera by more than about 5
degrees or make other major changes to the hardware configuration.
In general, the best practice is to get a good calibration within
about +/- 20 degrees of the celestrial equator and high enough in the
sky to avoid major seeing (turbulence) problems. Since PHD2 has
pointing information for this type of configuration, the 'Auto
restore calibration' option in the Guiding tab of the Advanced Dialog
will be checked automatically.
From this point forward, you can simply connect to your
gear, choose a guide star, then begin guiding immediately.
Finally, if you're using an instrument rotator as part of your
profile, PHD2 can use the 'Rotator' connection to adjust the
calibration data based on the angular position of the guide camera -
one less reason for re-doing a calibration.
always review the results of your last calibration by using the 'Tools'
menu and clicking on 'Review Calibration Data' That will open a
dialog that shows a graphical representation of the mount's movements
along with the values that were computed for guiding your mount.
This window is described elsewhere in the Calibration Details
section of the help file. As a quick quality check, you can open
this window and confirm that 1) the RA and Dec lines are roughly
perpendicular and 2) the plotted points are roughly linear with
no significant curves, bends, clumping of points, or reversals in direction. If
you do see these kinds of odd patterns in the graph, you should
probably re-do the calibration. Even with high-end mounts,
calibrations can occasionally go awry because of environmental
conditions, especially wind and bad seeing.
a calibration is completed, PHD2 will "sanity check" the results to be
sure the calculations at least look reasonable. If they don't,
you will see an 'alert' message at the top of the main window that
describes the calibration result that looks questionable. You can
choose to ignore the alert or click on 'Details' to get more
information. It is generally advisable to pay attention to these
alerts because there is no point in trying to guide using a significantly bad calibration.
Adaptive Optics Devices
you are using an adaptive optics device, there are actually two
calibration processes that must complete. The first handles
calibration of the tip/tilt mirror in the AO and calculates the
magnitude and direction of the adjustments as they relate to
displacements of the guide star. The second calibration is
one described above, dealing with guide commands that need to be sent
to the mount. Known as "bump" commands, these will be
issued when the guide star has moved beyond the range of
corrections that can be achieved with the AO alone.
Once guiding has begun,
diagnostic messages will be displayed in the status bar to show what
guide commanda are being sent to the mount. PHD2
will continue guiding until you click on the 'Stop' icon. To
resume guiding, simply start looping exposures again, select your star,
and click on the 'Guide' button. You will not need to repeat
calibration in order to resume guiding. In some cases, PHD2 may lose the guide star and
you'll be alerted by an audible beep and flashing orange crosshairs.
There are several reasons this might occur:
you'll need to identify the source of the problem and fix it.
However, it's important to understand that PHD2 will not start
moving the telescope around in an attempt to relocate the guide star.
It will simply continue to take exposures and look for the
star to reappear within the bounds of the current tracking rectangle.
When you first start guiding, you may see an 'alert' dialog at
the top of the window if no dark library or bad-pixel map is being
used. You can choose to ignore this warning and continue with
guiding, but you are likely to get better results if you spend the few
minutes needed to construct a dark library for future use.
- Something may be obscuring the star - clouds, the
observatory roof, a tree, etc.
star may have abruptly moved out of the tracking rectangle because
something shifted in the mount/camera/cabling infrastructure - cable snags can cause this
- The star may have "faded" for some other reason, perhaps
because it is overly faint
you are using a German equatorial mount (GEM), you will usually have to
do a "meridian flip" around the time your image target crosses the
meridian. This means you will move the
telescope around to the opposite side of the pier and then resume
imaging. Doing this invalidates the original calibration,
typically because the declination directions are now
reversed. If you are using an ASCOM (or 'aux' ) mount interface, your
calibration will be adjusted automatically and you can simply resume
guiding (assuming you haven't also rotated the camera or focuser).
If you aren't using an interface that returns pointing position, you will need to
action to adjust the guider calibration. You can, of course,
simply do another
calibration on the current side of the pier, a process that will
typically take only a couple of minutes. Or, you
the pull-down menu item under 'Tools/Modify Calibration' to "flip calibration data" and
then resume guiding immediately. Note: 'flip calibration data' will have no effect if PHD2 is using an ASCOM or 'aux-mount' connection.
In some cases, you may
want to force a re-calibration. For example, you may have
the guide camera as part of resolving a cable problem. You
this by clicking on the 'Brain button', moving to the 'Guiding'
tab, and clicking the 'Clear mount calibration' checkbox. Or, you
simply do a <shift>click on the 'Guide' button
on the main
screen and PHD2
will start a calibration run.
you have started guiding, you will almost certainly want to know how
things are going. You can of course watch the star in the
camera display but in many cases you won't be able to see all the small
adjustments that are taking place. But PHD2 provides many
for measuring and displaying your performance, as described in the Visualization section.
Several of the guiding algorithms have limit settings for the
maximum guide correction that can be issued with a single command.
If these values are smaller than what is needed to correct the
mount's position, you will see an alert dialog at the top of the main window
advising you of the situation. If this is a recurring problem,
you may want to increase the values for these settings or otherwise
solve the underlying problem.